The Gaps Among Species And Genetic Boundaries

One of the biggest dilemmas of the evolutionary theory is the existence of species that are different from one another and variety of species in the nature. Darwinist biologists are desperate in terms of explaining the occurrence of different animal and plant species in 150 years through the evolutionary theory.

In the book “The Origin of Species,” Darwin called the existence of different species “the secret of all secrets,” and made a confession in one of his other books:

When we descend to details, we can prove that no one species has changed… nor can we prove that the supposed changes are benefi­cial, which is the groundwork of the theory.” (Francis Darwin, The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, vol II, 1888, p. 210)

Contrary to Darwin’s overt confession, Darwinists have kept alleging that “one species can transform into another by acquiring so-called new features in time and through various effects” and come up with new theories. One of these theories is about segregation of continents and isolation of living creatures due to similar geographical barriers. According to this irrational allegation, creatures living in separate environments have become different species due to isolation. However, this is scientifically inconsistent since there is a mechanism called “genetic barrier” (reproduction barrier). Genetic barrier, which will be explained further below, is a mechanisms ensuring that genes of a species remain only in that species and does not change for generations.

GEOGRAPHICAL DIFFERENCES DO NOT CREATE A NEW SPECIES

Without a doubt, some differences may come into existence among creatures of the same species living far away from each other due to geographical barriers, but these differences occur within the boundaries of the genetic data that a species has from the very beginning. Therefore, diversification of a species is nothing but variation. It is a well-known fact that variation will remain within the boundaries of the genetic data that exists in a species from the beginning, and will not bring that species new features.

There is a rule-of-thumb for every creature: The genetic data that a species have from the moment they came into existence does not change, no matter how much time passes. The only difference that will occur is the variation due to different combinations of genes. Thus, the DNA of that species will not incidentally become another, completely different DNA with different genes, and a new species will not come into existence.

According to the biological definition, a species is considered a different one only if “they can mate with each other and are isolated from other populations in terms of reproduction.” Accordingly, the barriers that will prevent the species that used to live together at the beginning from mating (geographical barriers such as segregation of continents) become important for the evolutionists who constantly try to prove their arguments.

The evolutionists’ major mistake on this issue is that the species living in different environments, which are vastly different from one another, are population-based differences. If creatures of the same species become isolated from each other for some reason, then some features in these two groups who have dissociated from one another will start to stand out, and these two groups will become dissimilar. However, this dissimilation will not turn that species into another one. Let us explain this phenomenon through an example:

The reappearance of the same feature over generations (such as slanty-eyedness or skin color) causes different species to come into existence; nevertheless, this is variation, not evolution. In other words, the changes in skin color or eye structure does not turn humans into another species. Only a new race of humans would occur.

As can be understood from this example, variation is not tied to evolution whatsoever since, just to make it clear,  variation does not lead to occurrence of a new species. In fact, the notion of variation is defined as “different combinations of the genes in the same species without new genetic data.” Genetic features (genotype) remain fundamentally same, but physical features of a species (phenotype) may change.

It should be kept in mind that variation does not add anything new to the genetic code of a species; it only creates different combinations by changing the order of the genes. Thus, the DNA of that species will not incidentally become another, completely different DNA with different genes, and a new species will not come into existence. This genetic rule is true for all species.

REPRODUCTION BARRIER DOES NOT PROVE EVOLUTION – ON THE CONTRARY, IT DISPROVES EVOLUTION

Evolutionists, who have not been able to provide a single, concrete evidence regarding their arguments until today, have tried to whitewash their case by hiding behind some fallacious stories and consolation. They try to interpret the notion of “reproduction barrier” that we handle herein in their own way, but in fact, genetic barrier is one of the strongest evidences proving the invalidity of evolutionary theory.

“Reproduction barrier,” according to its definition, corresponds to a mechanism, situation or reason keeping two species from mating each other, and has two phases: pre- and post-zygote.

According to the allegations of Darwinists, two populations that are segregated from one another in terms of reproduction starts to go through various genetic changes, and they eventually get to the point where they cannot mate with one another, and thus a new species is born.

These barriers, which, as argued by Darwinists, are the main reason of the occurrence of species different from each other, may be geographic or genetic differences which keep inharmonious species from producing healthy babies.

This is where Darwinists fall into a great mistake. Reproduction isolation, also known as genetic barrier, does not lead to occurrence of a new species as the evolutionists suggest; on the contrary, it leads to occurrence of variations within a species without occurrence of a new species.

The genetic combination of the species that are forced to mate due to their isolation from other populations is limited, and some features that are already coded in genes become prominent.

For example, as we have mentioned before, human races with different genotypes have come into existence in this way. The feature of black skin color became prominent in one part of human populations that were isolated from each other for various reasons, and as these people lived in the same region and reproduced, a race with black skin has taken place.

While some features are dominant in a population (skin color, height, muscle power, etc.), some other features become prominent in another population and thus two different races are formed. This is not evolution or production of species; this is solely variation within a species.

The argument that “the phenomenon of geographical barriers produces new species” is invalid

Another problem in this argument is the part where the evolutionists argue “different species of the same creature cannot mate with each other.” However, there are many species that have been living in different continents for millions of years, share the same features and are able to mate when they are brought together. Alligators living in salty and fresh waters in South America and Australia are great examples of this case. These continents, which were integral once, segregated from each other 175 million years ago. Having carried all of the features of their species for 175 million years, alligators single-handedly disprove the allegation that geographical barriers produce new species.

GENETIC BARRIER IS THE BIGGEST ROADBLOCK FOR THE EVOLUTION

In genetics, processes such as gene shuffling and epigenetic (changes in gene expression that do not stem from changes in the DNA sequencing, but are hereditary) are frequently mentioned. These processes trigger variations, though there is a limit to these variations. This limit is determined by “genetic barriers.”

Genotypes of different species are vastly different from one another. Because of these differences, different species cannot mate with each other and produce new species. Moreover, there is no process in the nature that would create new genetic information or add new information to genes. Therefore, as it is not possible to add a new gene to a species, production of a new species is not possible as well.

AMERICAN BIOLOGISTS CONFESS:

“REPRODUCTION AND SPECIATION ARE NOT EVOLUTION”

The evolutionists’ allegation that “reproductive isolation cause speciation” has recently been questioned in a research conducted by biologists at Berkeley and Chicago Universities, and the result that new species cannot be produced in this way has been published as a confession.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130902162536.htm

In another article that has been published in Science Daily by biologists at the University of Michigan as their common view, it is mentioned that “the assumption that genetic reproductive barriers, which are also known as reproductive isolation, is the driving force behind speciation is not actually valid.” (Daniel L. Rabosky. Reproductive isolation and the causes of speciation rate variation in nature. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 118, Issue 1, pages 13–25, May 2016)

In a research they have conducted on fruit flies and birds, Daniel Rabosky and Daniel Matute at the University of Chicago have reached the conclusion that “the rate at which genetic reproductive barriers arise does not predict the rate at which new species form in nature.” (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130902162536.htm)

Daniel Rabosky has made the following confession regarding their mistake of assuming reproductive barriers are a vital cause of speciation until today:

“… our study is actually the first direct test of how these barriers affect the rate at which species form… If these results are true more generally — which we would not yet claim but do suspect — it would imply that our understanding of species formation is extremely incomplete because we’ve spent so long studying the wrong things, due to this erroneous assumption that the main cause of species formation is the formation of barriers to reproduction.” (https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130902162536.htm)

It can be seen that experiments on reproductive barriers also disprove the evolutionists, as all other scientific results do. While these results do not support the evolutionary theory, they are not even closely related to the evolution itself. The mechanism called variation only occurs in the genetic information that already exists, and it cannot exceed the boundaries of that genetic information.

CONCLUSION

The formation of life on earth and the existence of different species cannot be explained through coincidences and incidental processes. Darwin’s argument of speciation is simply an unscientific nonsense. As we have seen, the evolutionists cannot put forth scientific evidences supporting their arguments on this issue whatsoever. As in all fields of science, the allegation of evolution is disproved in the field of genetics as well, and it is seen that species have remained the same since the beginning.

Again, as evidences supporting this genetic rule, 700-million-year-old fossils that have recently been excavated and are exactly the same as their living counterparts today also prove that all species have been created separately and in an instant, and that they have not changed throughout the history.

The Creator of the Earth and all of its rich diversity is our Lord, Allah (cc), the Possessor of Might and Wisdom.

“Our Word to a thing when We desire it is just to say to it ‘Be!’ and it is.” (Surat an-Nahl, 40)

Bibliography

  1. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130902162536.htm
  2. Daniel L. Rabosky. Reproductive isolation and the causes of speciation rate variation in nature. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Volume 118, Issue 1, pages 13–25, May 2016.

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